IP Archives of Cytology and Histopathology Research

Print ISSN: 2581-5725

Online ISSN: 2456-9267

CODEN : IACHCL

IP Archives of Cytology and Histopathology Research (ACHR) open access, peer-reviewed quarterly journal publishing since 2016 and is published under the Khyati Education and Research Foundation (KERF), is registered as a non-profit society (under the society registration act, 1860), Government of India with the vision of various accredited vocational courses in healthcare, education, paramedical, yoga, publication, teaching and research activity, with the aim of faster and better dissemination more...


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Kaur and Agarwal: To study cytomorphological details in case of autoimmune thyroiditis


Introduction

Immune system thyroiditis, (or Chronic Autoimmune thyroiditis), is a persistent infection wherein the body deciphers the thyroid organs and its chemical items T3, T4 and TSH as dangers, in this way delivering exceptional antibodies that focus on the thyroid's phones, along these lines obliterating it. It might give hypothyroidism or hyperthyroidism and with or without a goiter.1

At the minute level, there are three essential highlights of the thyroid—follicles, follicular cells, and parafollicular cells, first found by Geoffery Websterson in 1664. Thyroid follicles are little round groupings of cells 0.02–0.9mm in breadth that assume the fundamental part in thyroid capacity. 2 They comprise of an edge that has a rich blood supply, nerve and lymphatic presence that encompasses a center of colloid that comprises for the most part of thyroid chemical forerunner proteins called thyroglobulin, an iodinated glycoprotein.3

The center of a follicle is encircled by a solitary layer of follicular cells. At the point when animated by thyroid invigorating chemical (TSH), these emit the thyroid chemicals T3 and T4. They do this by shipping and utilizing the thyroglobulin contained in the colloid. Follicular cells change fit as a fiddle from level to cuboid to columnar, contingent upon how dynamic they are.4 Dispersed among follicular cells and in spaces between the circular follicles are another sort of thyroid cell, parafollicular cells. These phones emit calcitonin as are likewise called C cells.

There are numerous variations in the size and state of the thyroid organ, and in the situation of the inserted parathyroid glands.5 At times there is a third projection present called the pyramidal flap. At the point when present, this projection regularly extends up the hyoid bone from the thyroid isthmus and might be one to a few separated flaps. The presence of this projection ranges in revealed concentrates from 18.3% (6) to 44.6% (41). It was appeared to all the more frequently emerge from the left side and incidentally isolated. The pyramidal flap is otherwise called Lalouette's pyramid.6 The pyramidal flap is a remainder of the thyroglossal conduit which as a rule dies during the thyroid organ's drop. Little adornment thyroid organs may indeed happen anyplace along the thyroglossal channel, from the foramen cecum of the tongue to the situation of the thyroid in the grown-up. A little horn at the rear of the thyroid flaps, typically near the repetitive laryngeal nerve and the sub-par thyroid corridor, is called Zuckerkandl's tubercle.7 Different variations incorporate a levator muscle of thyroid organ, associating the isthmus to the body of the hyoid bone, and the presence of the little thyroid ima supply route.

The essential capacity of the thyroid is the creation of the iodine-containing thyroid chemicals, triiodothyronine (T3) and thyroxine (T4) and the peptide chemical calcitonin. T3 is so named in light of the fact that it contains three particles of iodine for every particle and T4 contains four iotas of iodine for each atom. The thyroid chemicals have a wide scope of impacts on the human body.

The thyroid chemicals increment the basal metabolic rate and have impacts on practically all body tissues. Hunger, the retention of substances, and gut motility are completely affected by thyroid hormones.8 They increment the ingestion in the gut, age, take-up by cells, and breakdown of glucose. They animate the breakdown of fats, and increment the quantity of free unsaturated fats. Regardless of expanding free unsaturated fats, thyroid chemicals decline cholesterol levels, maybe by expanding the pace of emission of cholesterol in bile.

Materials and Methods

The present study is conducted from 2013 to 2016 among 200 admitted patients.

Various smears were readied, air-dried and fixed in ethanol for staining by May-Grunwald-Giemsa stain and Papanicolaou staining strategy. A nitty gritty assessment of the cytologic smears was done and includes like cellularity, sum and nature of colloid, Hurthle cell change, anisonucleosis of follicular cells, range of receptive lymphoid cells and other incendiary cells like eosinophils, macrophages, goliath cells and epithelioid cells were noted. Thyroid capacity tests were finished utilizing COBAS E analyser.

Inclusion criteria

All the patients with palpable thyroid swelling undergoing FNAC procedure at Amaltas Institute of Medical Sciences, Dewas.

Exclusion criteria

Already diagnosed by FNAC as thyroid swelling other than thyroiditis.

Results

Table 1

Distribution of participants according to sex (n=200)

Sex

Number of Patients

Percentage (%)

Male

36

18.0

Female

164

82.0

Total

200

100.0

Table 2

Distribution of participants accordingfnac diagnosis (n=200)

Number of Patients

Percentage (%)

Granulomatous Thyroiditis

62

31.0

Lymphocytic Thyroiditis

84

42.0

Hashimoto’s Thyroiditis

54

27.0

Total

200

100.0

Table 3

Correlation between type of swelling and diagnosis (n=100)

Swelling

Granulomatous Thyroiditis

Lymphocytic Thyroiditis

Hashimoto’s Thyroiditis

Total

Painless

04

84

54

71

Painful

58

0

0

29

Total

62

84

54

100

Chi square= 82.1874 ; p-value < 0.00001 (significant)

Discussion

There were only 18(18%) males as against 82(82%) females in the present study. The prevalence of thyroid disorders is known to be higher among females in almost all regions of world.9 However, the sex correlation did not affect the type of thyroiditis as the p-value for this came out to be 0.5117 which was statistically insignificant.

The distribution of cases according to FNAC diagnosis. Out of the 100 cases, 31 had Granulomatous thyroiditis, 42 had lymphocytic thyroiditis while 27 had Hashimoto’s thyroiditis.9 This percentage is not comparable with the actual prevalence of thyroiditis in the population as here, all the thyroid cases only have been studied and the rate of thyroid patients seeking medical consultation may be quite different from the actual number of cases.

In the present study, only Granulomatous thyroiditis presented as a painful swelling while all 42 cases of Lymphocytic and all 27 cases of Hashimoto’s thyroiditis presented with painless swellings. 10 An important point with painless swellings is that patients do not usually seek medical help unless there is pain or discomfort in the swelling. And this makes the early diagnosis more difficult. However, the histopathological findings become conspicuous due to this delay. 11

Thyroid chemicals are significant for typical turn of events. They increment the development pace of youngsters, and cells of the creating cerebrum are a significant objective for the thyroid chemicals T3 and T4. Thyroid chemicals assume an especially essential part in cerebrum development during fetal turn of events and initial not many long periods of post pregnancy life.12

The thyroid chemicals additionally assume a part in keeping up typical sexual capacity, rest, and thought designs. Expanded levels are related with sped up idea age however diminished core interest. Sexual capacity, including drive and the support of an ordinary period, are impacted by thyroid hormones.13 After discharge, just a little extent of the thyroid chemicals travel openly in the blood. Most are bound to thyroxine-restricting globulin (about 70%), transthyretin (10%), and egg whites (15%). Just the 0.03% of T4 and 0.3% of T3 voyaging unreservedly have hormonal movement. Moreover, up to 85% of the T3 in blood is created following transformation from T4 by iodothyronine deiodinases in organs around the body.

Conclusion

A total of 200 thyroiditis cases studied with detailed history, thorough clinical examination and relevant blood investigations like Thyroid Profile were being done. The various studies on the correlation of cytomorphological spectrum and antithyroglobulin antibodies in autoimmune thyroiditis cases all acreoss the globe have great variations in their findings.

Source of Funding

No financial support was received for the work within this manuscript.

Conflict of Interest

The authors declare they have no conflict of interest.

References

1 

BS Mnahi AI Musallam KA Omar BS Qasim ES Tayeb Thyroid computed tomography imaging: pictorial review of variable pathologiesInsights Into Imaging20167460117

2 

F Don R Jensh Bloom & Fawcett's Concise HistologyArnold PublishersNew York20022578

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F Herring Illustrated Anatomy of the Head and Neck2012158Elsevier

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B Young Wheater's functional histology: a text and colour atlas 5th Edn.Oxford: Churchill Livingstone20063335

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J B Hazard The C cells (parafollicular cells) of the thyroid gland and medullary thyroid carcinoma. A reviewAm J Pathol197788121350

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Dorland Illustrated Medical Dictionary 32nd Edn.Elsevier Saunders20129991562

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C Page P Cuvelier A Biet P Boute M Laude V Strunski Thyroid tubercle of Zuckerkandl: anatomical and surgical experience from 79 thyroidectomiesJ laryngology Otol2009123776871

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G Jayaram R K Marwaha R K Gupta S K Sharma Cytomorphologic aspects of thyroiditis. A study of 51 cases with functional, immunologic and ultrasonographic dataActa Cytol19863168793

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K Anila N Nayak K Jayasree Cytomorphologic spectrum of lymphocytic thyroiditis and correlation between cytological grading and biochemical parametersJ Cytol2016333145

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R K Marwaha R Sankar M Magdum V S Nijahvan C M Khanna C B Jaggi Clinical, biochemical and cytomorphological observations in juvenile chronic lymphocytic thyroiditisIndian Pediatr19983596773

11 

S C Werner SC Werner Pharmacology; treatmentThe Thyroid: A Fundamental and Clinical Text. 2nd. Edn.Harper & RowNew York196281725

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R D Utiger Thyrotrophin radioimmunoassay: another test of thyroid functionAnn Intern Med1971746279

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J M Hershman J A Pittman Jr Utility of the radioimmunoassay of serum thyrotrophin in manAnn Intern Med19717448190



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© This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.


Article type

Original Article


Article page

84-86


Authors Details

Dupinder Kaur, Pooja Agarwal


Article History

Received : 15-03-2021

Accepted : 12-04-2021

Available online : 29-05-2021


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